Hyperopt

This page explains how to tune your strategy by finding the optimal parameters, a process called hyperparameter optimization. The bot uses several algorithms included in the scikit-optimize package to accomplish this. The search will burn all your CPU cores, make your laptop sound like a fighter jet and still take a long time.

In general, the search for best parameters starts with a few random combinations and then uses Bayesian search with a ML regressor algorithm (currently ExtraTreesRegressor) to quickly find a combination of parameters in the search hyperspace that minimizes the value of the loss function.

Hyperopt requires historic data to be available, just as backtesting does. To learn how to get data for the pairs and exchange you're interested in, head over to the Data Downloading section of the documentation.

Bug

Hyperopt can crash when used with only 1 CPU Core as found out in Issue #1133

Prepare Hyperopting

Before we start digging into Hyperopt, we recommend you to take a look at the sample hyperopt file located in user_data/hyperopts/.

Configuring hyperopt is similar to writing your own strategy, and many tasks will be similar and a lot of code can be copied across from the strategy.

The simplest way to get started is to use freqtrade new-hyperopt --hyperopt AwesomeHyperopt. This will create a new hyperopt file from a template, which will be located under user_data/hyperopts/AwesomeHyperopt.py.

Checklist on all tasks / possibilities in hyperopt

Depending on the space you want to optimize, only some of the below are required:

  • fill buy_strategy_generator - for buy signal optimization
  • fill indicator_space - for buy signal optimzation
  • fill sell_strategy_generator - for sell signal optimization
  • fill sell_indicator_space - for sell signal optimzation

Note

populate_indicators needs to create all indicators any of thee spaces may use, otherwise hyperopt will not work.

Optional - can also be loaded from a strategy:

  • copy populate_indicators from your strategy - otherwise default-strategy will be used
  • copy populate_buy_trend from your strategy - otherwise default-strategy will be used
  • copy populate_sell_trend from your strategy - otherwise default-strategy will be used

Note

Assuming the optional methods are not in your hyperopt file, please use --strategy AweSomeStrategy which contains these methods so hyperopt can use these methods instead.

Rarely you may also need to override:

  • roi_space - for custom ROI optimization (if you need the ranges for the ROI parameters in the optimization hyperspace that differ from default)
  • generate_roi_table - for custom ROI optimization (if you need the ranges for the values in the ROI table that differ from default or the number of entries (steps) in the ROI table which differs from the default 4 steps)
  • stoploss_space - for custom stoploss optimization (if you need the range for the stoploss parameter in the optimization hyperspace that differs from default)
  • trailing_space - for custom trailing stop optimization (if you need the ranges for the trailing stop parameters in the optimization hyperspace that differ from default)

Quickly optimize ROI, stoploss and trailing stoploss

You can quickly optimize the spaces roi, stoploss and trailing without changing anything (i.e. without creation of a "complete" Hyperopt class with dimensions, parameters, triggers and guards, as described in this document) from the default hyperopt template by relying on your strategy to do most of the calculations.

# Have a working strategy at hand.
freqtrade new-hyperopt --hyperopt EmptyHyperopt

freqtrade hyperopt --hyperopt EmptyHyperopt --spaces roi stoploss trailing --strategy MyWorkingStrategy --config config.json -e 100

1. Install a Custom Hyperopt File

Put your hyperopt file into the directory user_data/hyperopts.

Let assume you want a hyperopt file awesome_hyperopt.py:
Copy the file user_data/hyperopts/sample_hyperopt.py into user_data/hyperopts/awesome_hyperopt.py

2. Configure your Guards and Triggers

There are two places you need to change in your hyperopt file to add a new buy hyperopt for testing:

  • Inside indicator_space() - the parameters hyperopt shall be optimizing.
  • Inside populate_buy_trend() - applying the parameters.

There you have two different types of indicators: 1. guards and 2. triggers.

  1. Guards are conditions like "never buy if ADX < 10", or never buy if current price is over EMA10.
  2. Triggers are ones that actually trigger buy in specific moment, like "buy when EMA5 crosses over EMA10" or "buy when close price touches lower bollinger band".

Hyperoptimization will, for each eval round, pick one trigger and possibly multiple guards. The constructed strategy will be something like "buy exactly when close price touches lower bollinger band, BUT only if ADX > 10".

If you have updated the buy strategy, i.e. changed the contents of populate_buy_trend() method, you have to update the guards and triggers your hyperopt must use correspondingly.

Sell optimization

Similar to the buy-signal above, sell-signals can also be optimized. Place the corresponding settings into the following methods

  • Inside sell_indicator_space() - the parameters hyperopt shall be optimizing.
  • Inside populate_sell_trend() - applying the parameters.

The configuration and rules are the same than for buy signals. To avoid naming collisions in the search-space, please prefix all sell-spaces with sell-.

Using ticker-interval as part of the Strategy

The Strategy exposes the ticker-interval as self.ticker_interval. The same value is available as class-attribute HyperoptName.ticker_interval. In the case of the linked sample-value this would be SampleHyperOpt.ticker_interval.

Solving a Mystery

Let's say you are curious: should you use MACD crossings or lower Bollinger Bands to trigger your buys. And you also wonder should you use RSI or ADX to help with those buy decisions. If you decide to use RSI or ADX, which values should I use for them? So let's use hyperparameter optimization to solve this mystery.

We will start by defining a search space:

    def indicator_space() -> List[Dimension]:
        """
        Define your Hyperopt space for searching strategy parameters
        """
        return [
            Integer(20, 40, name='adx-value'),
            Integer(20, 40, name='rsi-value'),
            Categorical([True, False], name='adx-enabled'),
            Categorical([True, False], name='rsi-enabled'),
            Categorical(['bb_lower', 'macd_cross_signal'], name='trigger')
        ]

Above definition says: I have five parameters I want you to randomly combine to find the best combination. Two of them are integer values (adx-value and rsi-value) and I want you test in the range of values 20 to 40. Then we have three category variables. First two are either True or False. We use these to either enable or disable the ADX and RSI guards. The last one we call trigger and use it to decide which buy trigger we want to use.

So let's write the buy strategy using these values:

        def populate_buy_trend(dataframe: DataFrame) -> DataFrame:
            conditions = []
            # GUARDS AND TRENDS
            if 'adx-enabled' in params and params['adx-enabled']:
                conditions.append(dataframe['adx'] > params['adx-value'])
            if 'rsi-enabled' in params and params['rsi-enabled']:
                conditions.append(dataframe['rsi'] < params['rsi-value'])

            # TRIGGERS
            if 'trigger' in params:
                if params['trigger'] == 'bb_lower':
                    conditions.append(dataframe['close'] < dataframe['bb_lowerband'])
                if params['trigger'] == 'macd_cross_signal':
                    conditions.append(qtpylib.crossed_above(
                        dataframe['macd'], dataframe['macdsignal']
                    ))

            if conditions:
                dataframe.loc[
                    reduce(lambda x, y: x & y, conditions),
                    'buy'] = 1

            return dataframe

        return populate_buy_trend

Hyperopting will now call this populate_buy_trend as many times you ask it (epochs) with different value combinations. It will then use the given historical data and make buys based on the buy signals generated with the above function and based on the results it will end with telling you which paramter combination produced the best profits.

The above setup expects to find ADX, RSI and Bollinger Bands in the populated indicators. When you want to test an indicator that isn't used by the bot currently, remember to add it to the populate_indicators() method in your custom hyperopt file.

Loss-functions

Each hyperparameter tuning requires a target. This is usually defined as a loss function (sometimes also called objective function), which should decrease for more desirable results, and increase for bad results.

By default, FreqTrade uses a loss function, which has been with freqtrade since the beginning and optimizes mostly for short trade duration and avoiding losses.

A different loss function can be specified by using the --hyperopt-loss <Class-name> argument. This class should be in its own file within the user_data/hyperopts/ directory.

Currently, the following loss functions are builtin:

  • DefaultHyperOptLoss (default legacy Freqtrade hyperoptimization loss function)
  • OnlyProfitHyperOptLoss (which takes only amount of profit into consideration)
  • SharpeHyperOptLoss (optimizes Sharpe Ratio calculated on the trade returns)

Creation of a custom loss function is covered in the Advanced Hyperopt part of the documentation.

Execute Hyperopt

Once you have updated your hyperopt configuration you can run it. Because hyperopt tries a lot of combinations to find the best parameters it will take time to get a good result. More time usually results in better results.

We strongly recommend to use screen or tmux to prevent any connection loss.

freqtrade hyperopt --config config.json --hyperopt <hyperoptname> -e 5000 --spaces all

Use <hyperoptname> as the name of the custom hyperopt used.

The -e option will set how many evaluations hyperopt will do. We recommend running at least several thousand evaluations.

The --spaces all option determines that all possible parameters should be optimized. Possibilities are listed below.

Note

By default, hyperopt will erase previous results and start from scratch. Continuation can be archived by using --continue.

Warning

When switching parameters or changing configuration options, make sure to not use the argument --continue so temporary results can be removed.

Execute Hyperopt with Different Ticker-Data Source

If you would like to hyperopt parameters using an alternate ticker data that you have on-disk, use the --datadir PATH option. Default hyperopt will use data from directory user_data/data.

Running Hyperopt with Smaller Testset

Use the --timerange argument to change how much of the testset you want to use. For example, to use one month of data, pass the following parameter to the hyperopt call:

freqtrade hyperopt --timerange 20180401-20180501

Running Hyperopt using methods from a strategy

Hyperopt can reuse populate_indicators, populate_buy_trend, populate_sell_trend from your strategy, assuming these methods are not in your custom hyperopt file, and a strategy is provided.

freqtrade hyperopt --strategy SampleStrategy --customhyperopt SampleHyperopt

Running Hyperopt with Smaller Search Space

Use the --spaces option to limit the search space used by hyperopt. Letting Hyperopt optimize everything is a huuuuge search space. Often it might make more sense to start by just searching for initial buy algorithm. Or maybe you just want to optimize your stoploss or roi table for that awesome new buy strategy you have.

Legal values are:

  • all: optimize everything
  • buy: just search for a new buy strategy
  • sell: just search for a new sell strategy
  • roi: just optimize the minimal profit table for your strategy
  • stoploss: search for the best stoploss value
  • trailing: search for the best trailing stop values
  • default: all except trailing
  • space-separated list of any of the above values for example --spaces roi stoploss

The default Hyperopt Search Space, used when no --space command line option is specified, does not include the trailing hyperspace. We recommend you to run optimization for the trailing hyperspace separately, when the best parameters for other hyperspaces were found, validated and pasted into your custom strategy.

Position stacking and disabling max market positions

In some situations, you may need to run Hyperopt (and Backtesting) with the --eps/--enable-position-staking and --dmmp/--disable-max-market-positions arguments.

By default, hyperopt emulates the behavior of the Freqtrade Live Run/Dry Run, where only one open trade is allowed for every traded pair. The total number of trades open for all pairs is also limited by the max_open_trades setting. During Hyperopt/Backtesting this may lead to some potential trades to be hidden (or masked) by previosly open trades.

The --eps/--enable-position-stacking argument allows emulation of buying the same pair multiple times, while --dmmp/--disable-max-market-positions disables applying max_open_trades during Hyperopt/Backtesting (which is equal to setting max_open_trades to a very high number).

Note

Dry/live runs will NOT use position stacking - therefore it does make sense to also validate the strategy without this as it's closer to reality.

You can also enable position stacking in the configuration file by explicitly setting "position_stacking"=true.

Reproducible results

The search for optimal parameters starts with a few (currently 30) random combinations in the hyperspace of parameters, random Hyperopt epochs. These random epochs are marked with a leading asterisk sign at the Hyperopt output.

The initial state for generation of these random values (random state) is controlled by the value of the --random-state command line option. You can set it to some arbitrary value of your choice to obtain reproducible results.

If you have not set this value explicitly in the command line options, Hyperopt seeds the random state with some random value for you. The random state value for each Hyperopt run is shown in the log, so you can copy and paste it into the --random-state command line option to repeat the set of the initial random epochs used.

If you have not changed anything in the command line options, configuration, timerange, Strategy and Hyperopt classes, historical data and the Loss Function -- you should obtain same hyperoptimization results with same random state value used.

Understand the Hyperopt Result

Once Hyperopt is completed you can use the result to create a new strategy. Given the following result from hyperopt:

Best result:

    44/100:    135 trades. Avg profit  0.57%. Total profit  0.03871918 BTC (0.7722Σ%). Avg duration 180.4 mins. Objective: 1.94367

Buy hyperspace params:
{    'adx-value': 44,
     'rsi-value': 29,
     'adx-enabled': False,
     'rsi-enabled': True,
     'trigger': 'bb_lower'}

You should understand this result like:

  • The buy trigger that worked best was bb_lower.
  • You should not use ADX because adx-enabled: False)
  • You should consider using the RSI indicator (rsi-enabled: True and the best value is 29.0 (rsi-value: 29.0)

You have to look inside your strategy file into buy_strategy_generator() method, what those values match to.

So for example you had rsi-value: 29.0 so we would look at rsi-block, that translates to the following code block:

(dataframe['rsi'] < 29.0)

Translating your whole hyperopt result as the new buy-signal would then look like:

def populate_buy_trend(self, dataframe: DataFrame) -> DataFrame:
    dataframe.loc[
        (
            (dataframe['rsi'] < 29.0) &  # rsi-value
            dataframe['close'] < dataframe['bb_lowerband']  # trigger
        ),
        'buy'] = 1
    return dataframe

By default, hyperopt prints colorized results -- epochs with positive profit are printed in the green color. This highlighting helps you find epochs that can be interesting for later analysis. Epochs with zero total profit or with negative profits (losses) are printed in the normal color. If you do not need colorization of results (for instance, when you are redirecting hyperopt output to a file) you can switch colorization off by specifying the --no-color option in the command line.

You can use the --print-all command line option if you would like to see all results in the hyperopt output, not only the best ones. When --print-all is used, current best results are also colorized by default -- they are printed in bold (bright) style. This can also be switched off with the --no-color command line option.

Understand Hyperopt ROI results

If you are optimizing ROI (i.e. if optimization search-space contains 'all', 'default' or 'roi'), your result will look as follows and include a ROI table:

Best result:

    44/100:    135 trades. Avg profit  0.57%. Total profit  0.03871918 BTC (0.7722Σ%). Avg duration 180.4 mins. Objective: 1.94367

ROI table:
{   0: 0.10674,
    21: 0.09158,
    78: 0.03634,
    118: 0}

In order to use this best ROI table found by Hyperopt in backtesting and for live trades/dry-run, copy-paste it as the value of the minimal_roi attribute of your custom strategy:

    # Minimal ROI designed for the strategy.
    # This attribute will be overridden if the config file contains "minimal_roi"
    minimal_roi = {
        0: 0.10674,
        21: 0.09158,
        78: 0.03634,
        118: 0
    }
As stated in the comment, you can also use it as the value of the minimal_roi setting in the configuration file.

Default ROI Search Space

If you are optimizing ROI, Freqtrade creates the 'roi' optimization hyperspace for you -- it's the hyperspace of components for the ROI tables. By default, each ROI table generated by the Freqtrade consists of 4 rows (steps). Hyperopt implements adaptive ranges for ROI tables with ranges for values in the ROI steps that depend on the ticker_interval used. By default the values vary in the following ranges (for some of the most used ticker intervals, values are rounded to 5 digits after the decimal point):

# step 1m 5m 1h 1d
1 0 0.01161...0.11992 0 0.03...0.31 0 0.06883...0.71124 0 0.12178...1.25835
2 2...8 0.00774...0.04255 10...40 0.02...0.11 120...480 0.04589...0.25238 2880...11520 0.08118...0.44651
3 4...20 0.00387...0.01547 20...100 0.01...0.04 240...1200 0.02294...0.09177 5760...28800 0.04059...0.16237
4 6...44 0.0 30...220 0.0 360...2640 0.0 8640...63360 0.0

These ranges should be sufficient in most cases. The minutes in the steps (ROI dict keys) are scaled linearly depending on the ticker interval used. The ROI values in the steps (ROI dict values) are scaled logarithmically depending on the ticker interval used.

If you have the generate_roi_table() and roi_space() methods in your custom hyperopt file, remove them in order to utilize these adaptive ROI tables and the ROI hyperoptimization space generated by Freqtrade by default.

Override the roi_space() method if you need components of the ROI tables to vary in other ranges. Override the generate_roi_table() and roi_space() methods and implement your own custom approach for generation of the ROI tables during hyperoptimization if you need a different structure of the ROI tables or other amount of rows (steps). A sample for these methods can be found in user_data/hyperopts/sample_hyperopt_advanced.py.

Understand Hyperopt Stoploss results

If you are optimizing stoploss values (i.e. if optimization search-space contains 'all', 'default' or 'stoploss'), your result will look as follows and include stoploss:

Best result:

    44/100:    135 trades. Avg profit  0.57%. Total profit  0.03871918 BTC (0.7722Σ%). Avg duration 180.4 mins. Objective: 1.94367

Buy hyperspace params:
{   'adx-value': 44,
    'rsi-value': 29,
    'adx-enabled': False,
    'rsi-enabled': True,
    'trigger': 'bb_lower'}
Stoploss: -0.27996

In order to use this best stoploss value found by Hyperopt in backtesting and for live trades/dry-run, copy-paste it as the value of the stoploss attribute of your custom strategy:

    # Optimal stoploss designed for the strategy
    # This attribute will be overridden if the config file contains "stoploss"
    stoploss = -0.27996
As stated in the comment, you can also use it as the value of the stoploss setting in the configuration file.

Default Stoploss Search Space

If you are optimizing stoploss values, Freqtrade creates the 'stoploss' optimization hyperspace for you. By default, the stoploss values in that hyperspace vary in the range -0.35...-0.02, which is sufficient in most cases.

If you have the stoploss_space() method in your custom hyperopt file, remove it in order to utilize Stoploss hyperoptimization space generated by Freqtrade by default.

Override the stoploss_space() method and define the desired range in it if you need stoploss values to vary in other range during hyperoptimization. A sample for this method can be found in user_data/hyperopts/sample_hyperopt_advanced.py.

Understand Hyperopt Trailing Stop results

If you are optimizing trailing stop values (i.e. if optimization search-space contains 'all' or 'trailing'), your result will look as follows and include trailing stop parameters:

Best result:

    45/100:    606 trades. Avg profit  1.04%. Total profit  0.31555614 BTC ( 630.48Σ%). Avg duration 150.3 mins. Objective: -1.10161

Trailing stop:
{   'trailing_only_offset_is_reached': True,
    'trailing_stop': True,
    'trailing_stop_positive': 0.02001,
    'trailing_stop_positive_offset': 0.06038}

In order to use these best trailing stop parameters found by Hyperopt in backtesting and for live trades/dry-run, copy-paste them as the values of the corresponding attributes of your custom strategy:

    # Trailing stop
    # These attributes will be overridden if the config file contains corresponding values.
    trailing_stop = True
    trailing_stop_positive = 0.02001
    trailing_stop_positive_offset = 0.06038
    trailing_only_offset_is_reached = True
As stated in the comment, you can also use it as the values of the corresponding settings in the configuration file.

Default Trailing Stop Search Space

If you are optimizing trailing stop values, Freqtrade creates the 'trailing' optimization hyperspace for you. By default, the trailing_stop parameter is always set to True in that hyperspace, the value of the trailing_only_offset_is_reached vary between True and False, the values of the trailing_stop_positive and trailing_stop_positive_offset parameters vary in the ranges 0.02...0.35 and 0.01...0.1 correspondingly, which is sufficient in most cases.

Override the trailing_space() method and define the desired range in it if you need values of the trailing stop parameters to vary in other ranges during hyperoptimization. A sample for this method can be found in user_data/hyperopts/sample_hyperopt_advanced.py.

Show details of Hyperopt results

After you run Hyperopt for the desired amount of epochs, you can later list all results for analysis, select only best or profitable once, and show the details for any of the epochs previously evaluated. This can be done with the hyperopt-list and hyperopt-show subcommands. The usage of these subcommands is described in the Utils chapter.

Validate backtesting results

Once the optimized strategy has been implemented into your strategy, you should backtest this strategy to make sure everything is working as expected.

To achieve same results (number of trades, their durations, profit, etc.) than during Hyperopt, please use same set of arguments --dmmp/--disable-max-market-positions and --eps/--enable-position-stacking for Backtesting.

Next Step

Now you have a perfect bot and want to control it from Telegram. Your next step is to learn the Telegram usage.